Therefore, the association is correlational, rather than causal.
From the famous longitudinal ‘Cambridge Study’ – over 30 years – of working-class boys in East London in which he had been involved, David Farrington (1995) concluded that low income, a large family, poor child-rearing techniques and parental criminality were the key predictors for juvenile delinquency. Biological theories of crime attempt to explain behaviors contrary to societal expectations through examination of individual characteristics. “Risk Factors for Criminal Behavior .” PDF, Norwegian Social Research, 2013, www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/39844/dravhandling-abrahamsen.pdf?sequence=1.
Perhaps the best we can say about biological explanations for criminality is that some people may well have a predisposition to behave in a criminal manner (aggressively or non-aggressively) due to one or more biological factors. × However, the relationship between violence and higher testosterone levels was not very strong – again indicating other factors must have been involved too. However, the type of participant and the form and measurement of aggression differed substantially between the studies. The researchers took salivary cortisol measurements during the second and fourth years and found the boys with lower cortisol concentrations exhibited 3 times the number of aggressive symptoms as boys with fluctuating or higher cortisol levels. However, Alice Theilgaard (1984) found that “no single characteristic except height…has been associated with the XYY condition”. This can do with their biological structure and the treatments of the environment around them. Research shows consistently that men commit far more criminal actions than women.
This is because “Genes control the production and regulation of proteins that function as neurotransmitters, enzymes, and hormones,” (Solveig Abrahamsen). Have We Gotten The Stanford Prison Experiment All Wrong? Genetics can carry disorders such as Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). Spiral Dynamics Leadership in the Integral Age, MeshWORKS – a 2nd Tier Perspective and Process, Aligning Neurological Levels – a Reassessment, Caregiver Sensitivity vs Temperament Hypothesis, Romantic Relationships: Economic Theories, Maintenance and Breakdown of Relationships, The Often Misunderstood Dynamics of Global Change, The EU: an Organisation divided by Values, Modernisation Theory vs Stratified Democracy. www.reference.com/science/limbic-system-39014f3c7323b28c. They attributed their aggressive, violent nature to this extra Y chromosome. Switching from ingestants to contaminates, Rick Nevin (1999) has found a link between the amount of lead in the environment and the level of violent crime. Schoenthaler’s work has not been taken as seriously as it should have been because flaws were found in his research procedures. );
Biological factors and crime: Implications for forensic psychiatry.
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