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Hence, we can conclude that our coefficients are unaffected by attrition. Studying different age groups again yields a more differentiated picture though. The key regressor labelled ‘ever1stdaughter’ takes a value of one if in at least one survey wave the oldest child is female, and zero otherwise. This result is in line with previous US findings (Shafer and Malhotra, 2011) supporting the idea that having a daughter affects men and women differently. Then, by additionally adding the ‘additional controls’, which consist of two educational level dummies, five marital status dummies, eight employment status dummies, and the natural logarithm of household income (see Table A.1 in the online appendix for summary statistics and definitions of all variables). windowOpen = window.open( jQuery( this ).attr( 'href' ), 'wpcomgoogle-plus-1', 'menubar=1,resizable=1,width=480,height=550' ); Our main regressor of interest is the binary variable ‘at least one daughter’ that takes on a value of one if the respondent has at least one daughter living in the household, and zero otherwise.14 To account for the potential interactive effect between child gender and child age on attitudes to gender norms, we also distinguish different age groups: ‘daughter 0 to 5’, ‘daughter 6 to 10’, and ‘daughter 11+’ are dummy variables indicating whether there is at least one daughter of the respective age group living in the household. Previous literature has regarded the possibility of sex-selective abortion as empirically unimportant in Western countries (e.g. Respondents are asked to rate agreement with the statement ‘a husband’s job is to earn money; a wife’s job is to look after the home and family’ on a 5-point scale ranging from ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’. Results for the subsample are very similar to the main results, providing a further indication that endogenous fertility stopping rules are not the driver behind our findings. Since we follow individuals over time and are interested in the variation from children entering the household and not the variation from children leaving the household, we follow individuals only as long as the number of children in the household is increasing or constant.11 After dropping observations for which the main outcome variable or any of the covariates are missing, the final sample is an unbalanced panel including 48,822 observations of 11,405 individuals (5,073 men with 20,851 observations and 6,332 women with 27,971 observations). Further analyses with data from the 1990s and early 2000s have not resolved the debate.

April 4, 2011: Brooks Raley assigned to Tennessee Smokies from Daytona Cubs. Understanding the malleability of attitudes towards gender norms is important for tackling gender inequality at its roots.

However, some authors such as Hamoudi and Nobles (2014) found that relationship conflict between husband and wife predicted the sex of subsequent children, and hence, separate analyses need to be done looking at the effect of the first child’s gender only. Given that these results could be explained by individual specific and time invariant unobservables that affect both co-residence with daughters and attitudes, columns (5) to (8) exhibit the individual FE results and show that the negative association between parenting daughters and traditional attitudes persists in FE models. Brooks Raley asignado a Iowa Cubs de Tennessee Smokies. Salt Lake Bees activan a LHP Brooks Raley. 94.4% of our children-wave pairs are on natural children, 4.8% on step/partners’ children, 0.7% on adopted children, and 0.2% on foster children. if ( 'undefined' !== typeof windowOpen ) { Finally, our findings on attitudes are also reflected in behavioural changes concerning gender norms, for the subsample of individuals living with a partner. _stq.push([ 'view', {v:'ext',j:'1:6.0',blog:'56311241',post:'43627',tz:'-4',srv:'nelsoncountygazette.com'} ]); However, both studies are limited by either the older nature or the cross-sectional nature of the data, with findings potentially affected by time-invariant unobservables.

We run regressions of ‘ever having at least one daughter’ on initial gender attitudes in the first wave the individual was interviewed while controlling for the full set of covariates, including the total number of children. Salt Lake Bees ponen a LHP Brooks Raley en la 7-día lista de deshabilitado retroactivo al June 8, 2014. 22 de mayo de 2012: Brooks Raley asignado a Iowa Cubs de Tennessee Smokies.

Their explanations, however, are that sons are more valued than daughters, and that sons need more maternal attention, inducing mothers to think that working would be a disservice to them. }); While this variable relates less directly to attitudes towards the gender division of work, it still captures attitudes towards gender norms more generally. The paper also contributes to expanding the evidence beyond the USA, being the first paper to explore the impact of the gender of the child on attitudes towards gender norms in the UK. The coefficients indicating the effect among fathers are largest for parenting only daughters and smallest when we only consider the gender of the first child, consistently with an exposure-based explanation. Women with daughters only are less traditional than women with sons only, but those with at least one daughter actually appear more traditional compared to those with only sons. The rest of the paper will be devoted to understand empirically how the gender of the child influences parental attitudes across child age. Our data contain information on children living in the household (as opposed to fertility records) which we use to construct our daughters measures, and we equally consider natural children, adopted children, foster children, and partners’/step-children.15 Since we are interested in the longitudinal effect of parenting daughters via exposure or identity changes rather than the one-time event of a birth of a daughter, we consider information from co-residence preferable over that from fertility histories.

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