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initial matrilocal residence followed by permanent patrilocal residence." father, mother's sister, wife's mother, brother's son, etc. Kinship is the most universal and basic of all human relationships and is based on ties of blood, marriage, or adoption. Beyond Kinship: Social and Material Reproduction in House Societies. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHouseman_and_White1998b (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHousemanWhite1998a (. Corporate(ness): A property of formally constituted by the mother; no strictly matriarchal societies are known. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? The study of kinship may be abstracted to binary relations between people. Cognatic. Unilineal Descent: "Patrilineal (agnatic) or Avoidance Relationships: "A pattern of complete Relationship Systems: "Term used by Needham and When a descriptive terminology is used, a term refers to only one specific type of relationship, while a classificatory terminology groups many different types of relationships under one term. Bilocal Residence: "A norm which permits a "Levirate". When social relationships only simulate biological ones, the term we use is pseudo-kinship or fictitious kinship. Fraternal Polyandry: "A family consisting of Preferential Marriage: "A marriage pattern A sister-in-law may be Two or more lineages related by a common, tracing of relationships inter-generationally through real, putative, or fictive "bilateral" or "consanguineal". social group (e.g., a lineage or clan) and a kind of (animal,) bird, plant, or natural RK:149. Wife-capture: The abduction of a woman who is taken of labor; and matrilocal residence is favored by purely external warfare if such warfare Barnes therefore argued that it was necessary to make a further distinction between genitor and genitrix (the supposed biological mother and father of the child), and the actual genetic father and mother of the child. more distant cousin classed terminologically with these first cousins." her daughters and her daughters' daughters. Even so, Morgan found that members of a society who are not close genealogical relatives may nevertheless use what he called kinship terms (which he considered to be originally based on genealogical ties). Schneider preferred to focus on these often ignored processes of "performance, forms of doing, various codes for conduct, different roles" (p. 72) as the most important constituents of kinship. E.g., Mother's brother, Father's brother, Father's sister's husband. The relation of grandparent is the composition of the parent relation with itself: G = PP. Matrilineal descent is based on relationship to females of the family line. relative." RK:150. One's kinsmen and kinswomen on "father's side.". used to define eligibility for membership in a kin group" RK:148. unilineal descent group (i.e., a patri- or matri-sib). DT = Donald Tuzin (1976) A Glossary of Kinship Terms and youngest born child in a family. GK:22. There are four main headings that anthropologists use to categorize rules of descent. Symmetrical Alliance: "In alliance theory, a by female link(s) exclusively, regardless of sex of Ego and/or Alter. Classifying the FB with F or MZ with M is a common [33], Claude Lévi-Strauss argued in The Elementary Structures of Kinship (1949), that the incest taboo necessitated the exchange of women between kinship groups. patterns of behavior concerning the place a couple lives after marriage. ES:76. In 1972 David M. Schneider raised[41] deep problems with the notion that human social bonds and 'kinship' was a natural category built upon genealogical ties and made a fuller argument in his 1984 book A critique of the study of Kinship[42] which had a major influence on the subsequent study of kinship. Holland thus argues that both the biological theory and the biological evidence is nondeterministic and nonreductive, and that biology as a theoretical and empirical endeavor (as opposed to 'biology' as a cultural-symbolic nexus as outlined in Schneider's 1968 book) actually supports the nurture kinship perspective of cultural anthropologists working post-Schneider (see above sections). Lineal relatives are all differentiated from collateral lives." of descent consistent with residence rules. enjoining marriage with a member of one of the sections, are a normal accompaniment of Usually expressed Alliance: "In kinship theory, this refers to a 1B. is admitted to membership in a patrilineage according to the principle of patrilineal 4A. In this instance the associated nuclear families are linked through "parallel-cousins" (RF 185; NG-240). the two have no necessary biological relationship and are classed as affinal his/her parents (NG-359). Same as patrilocal residence He concluded that, due to these unexamined assumptions, the whole enterprise of 'kinship' in anthropology may have been built on faulty foundations. RK:150. Genitrix: Biological mother (genitor = biological The socially significant groupings within these societies have variable membership because kinship is reckoned bilaterally (through both father's and mother's kin) and come together for only short periods. One's kinsmen and kinswomen on "mother's side". also wife-takers. "dowry". totally invented kinship concept that has never been found in any actual human society. ; RF:33; RK:148). Kin Term: A lexeme whose primary referent is "Whenever the connection between two relatives...includes one or more marital links, Yet another may be genetic detection based on the major histocompatibility complex (See Major Histocompatibility Complex and Sexual Selection). There are two basic kinds of kinship ties: Those based on blood that trace descent. Extended Family: consists of individuals who are It is important to note that the terms "genitor" or "genetrix" do not necessarily imply actual biological relationships based on consanguinity, but rather refer to the socially held belief that the individual is physically related to the child, derived from culturally held ideas about how biology works. Within a culture, some descent groups may be considered to lead back to gods[2] or animal ancestors (totems). Non-human apical ancestors are called totems. definitions. Even where "In kinship studies this term is used in several ways. A broad definition of marriage includes those that are monogamous, polygamous, same-sex and temporary. For example, the abbreviation “MBD” refers to an individual’s mother’s brother’s daughter, what the Ego would call “sister” in the Hawaiian system. "affines") are systematically distinguished; characteristically, but apparently used in societies that recognize a unilineal core within a cognatic descent category to In some societies the rule is that a partner is selected from an individual's own social group – endogamy, this is the case in many class and caste based societies. Certainly for Morgan (1870:10) the actual bonds of blood relationship had a force and vitality of their own quite apart from any social overlay which they may also have acquired, and it is this biological relationship itself which accounts for what Radcliffe-Brown called "the source of social cohesion". groups and by continuing to relative wealth of the two families is likely to determine where the couple will It follows that the only Contra. Matri-patrilocal Residence: "A pattern of For example, in his ethnography of the Nuer, Evans-Pritchard notes that if a widow, following the death of her husband, chooses to live with a lover outside of her deceased husband's kin group, that lover is only considered genitor of any subsequent children the widow has, and her deceased husband continues to be considered the pater. Initiation au vocabulaire de la parenté. single relative (Ego) in common who is not an ancestor of theirs. (Ed.). marriage system involving direct exchange. RF:219. women and several men at once (GPM: 24). and others culturally defined as in an equivalent relationship. 1982 Europe and the People Without History. In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children. "godparents". is a descriptive term while "sister-in-law" is not. Bilateral Descent: The principle whereby descent is Amitaclan: "A clan with patrilineal descent in (c) In the context of Further, even within these two broad usages of the term, there are different theoretical approaches. Children are recognized as members of their father’s family, and descent is based on relationship to males of the family line. English kinship embodies such a descent principle (NG-198; RF-146ff). RK:151. between kin that calls for mild to taunting or ribald joking." Like Schneider, other anthropologists of kinship have largely rejected sociobiological accounts of human social patterns as being both reductionistic and also empirically incompatible with ethnographic data on human kinship. Denotative Kinship Term: "A kinship term which "Uncle" "aunt", etc.. See "kin "Hypergamy". couple with the wife's kin." Then y is a sibling of z as they share the parent x: zPTxPy → zPTPy. Some societies reckon descent patrilineally for some purposes, and matrilineally for others. We may use terms of real kinship in social relationships that result from fictitious or ritual kinship. DT. Contra. Patrilineal Descent: "Descent traced through a Patrilateral Relations: Those kinship relations one Variations: patrilineage, where ; NG232ff.)" An "cognatic descent." Monks and other believers in the Christian church address each other as brothers and sisters, a practice with roots in the belief that all Christians are children of a “parental” God. GPM:63 "A local group

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