Elected with Louis Napoleon was a National Assembly which was filled with monarchists—of both the Legitimist (Bourbon) variety or the Orleanist (Louis-Philippe) variety. The reckless foreign policy of Napoleon III led to his downfall and his last mistake was to declare war in July 1870 against Prussia and the allied German states and was captured by the enemy along with his entire army. 52. John W. Boyle, “Ireland and the First International,” Journal of British Studies, 11(2), May 1970: 62. The recognition and consolidation of the Republic, the only form of government compatible with the rights of the people and the normal and free development of society. Meanwhile, economically, the French working class may perhaps have been slightly better off than Britain's working class. He re-established universal suffrage, feared by the Republicans at the time who correctly expected the countryside to vote against the Republic, Louis Napoleon took the title Emperor Napoleon III, and the Second Empire began. 82. The victors understood the power of this example and did all they could to destroy the memory, but it is remembered to the present day. The soldiers, however, fraternized with the city’s common people and refused to carry out orders. (By contrast, the Mobile Guard supported Cavaignac in that election. Separation of church and state was declared in a decree passed on April 2. Where there had previously been debate over whether the Commune was a revolutionary socialist movement or a movement of artisans, Rougerie's La Commune: 1871 (1988) attributed the Commune to an amalgam of both. Cells of resistance surfaced, but were put down, and the Second Republic was officially over. Outstanding representatives of the creative intelligentsia were members of the Commune—for example, E. M. Vaillant, a physician and engineer; the artist G. Courbet; the writers J. Vallès and E. Pottier; and the journalists A. J. M. Vermorel and E. M. G. Tridon. Henry Collins and Chimen Abramsky, Karl Marx and British Labour Movement: Years of the First International, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1965. Institute of Marxism-Leninism, Documents, Vol. Despite all these limitations, the IWMA directly promoted international solidarity. Eugene Schulkind, “Socialist women during the 1871 Paris Commune,” Past & Present, 106(1), February 1985: 124–63. In an age before the invention of the Internet or other means of global communication, there was a regrettable tendency for members closest to the organization’s center, London, to have the most influence. The new constitution was finished on 23 October 1848 and presidential elections were scheduled for 10 December 1848. Another important female participant was the anarchist, Louise Michel, who fought oppression in Paris and continued her fight when sentenced to a South Pacific penal colony. Later, after he was released from prison in Germany, he headed off to exile in Britain, like Karl Marx. 59.
 Moreover, there were women active in various political clubs throughout the brief lifespan of the Commune. / Mount Holyoke College, Creative Commons.  Not surprising, therefore, that so many have viewed the Commune as a workers’ uprising. On 26 February 1848, the liberal opposition came together to organize a provisional government, called the Second Republic.
26. First, they established a radical participatory form of democracy that was in almost complete contradiction to traditional parliamentary systems. The Paris Commune was also a consequence of the struggle of the French and international working class against capitalist exploitation and the political hegemony of the bourgeoisie. K. Marx maintained close contact with the Paris Commune, managing to convey to its leaders practical advice concerning economic, political, and military matters. The Communards’ march was badly organized, and on April 4 the advancing columns were thrown back, suffering heavy losses.
The Paris Commune was also a consequence of the struggle of the French and international working class against capitalist exploitation and the political hegemony of the bourgeoisie. Established in the Hôtel de Ville just after the storming of the Bastille, it consisted of 144 delegates elected by the 48 divisions of the city.The Paris Commune became insurrectionary in the summer of 1792, essentially refusing to take orders from the central French government. the alliance between the bourgeois liberals and lower-class radicals became apparent, it was simply a matter of encouraging disunity among the opposition. As one historian comments, “It was the European reaction inspired by fear of the Commune and the International, rather than Bakunin’s attempts at a takeover, which wrecked Marx’s International.” In the wake of the destruction of the first workers’ government in Paris in 1871, it became open season on the IWMA. In general, the Commune did not pay enough attention to establishing solid ties with the workers in the provinces. As Edith Thomas argued decades ago, “it is understandable that women, who are the first to suffer under the social order, would have a hand in a revolutionary movement aimed at changing that order.” Throughout April 1871, the women of Paris together with their male comrades proceeded to build one of the most democratic and egalitarian societies ever witnessed in Europe. II, 265–70. Farce ensued when the reckless foreign policy of Napoleon III led to his downfall.
In fall 1866, Belgian basket makers were brought to London to undercut wage levels in the trade. While the Commune attempted to practice liberty, equality and solidarity and, for example, restricted the highest government salary to 6,000 francs, the gathering at the old palace of the French kings was cut from a different cloth.. Supported by the ultra-royalists, Charles X was an extremely unpopular reactionary monarch whose aspirations were far more grand than those of his deceased brother.
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